71. Hazard and Operability Study (PHA-HAZOOP)


A HAZOP is a qualitative study used to identify potential hazards and operability concerns, and to facilitate consensus on recommendations that arise. The study identifies process deviations from design intent and their potential consequences.

The “guide word” HAZOP technique is the most widely applied in industry. In a guide word HAZOP, a dedicated team studies available process information (such as Process and Instrumentation Diagrams) and systematically applies the guidewords with appropriate parameters to the various lines and vessels in the process to determine if a deviation from the design intent or normal process condition is possible. The cause, consequence, safeguards, and recommendations, if needed, are documented for each piece of equipment discussed.

A HAZOP team is typically composed of individuals representing a variety of technical specialties. Each session should include representations from the following areas:

• Process Engineering

• Operations

• Maintenance/Reliability

• Instrumentation

Additional specialized team members may be required when effective discussion of the events and consequences in that node depend on an individual’s experience or knowledge, such as the disciplines of:

• Inspection / Materials

• Electrical

• Safety / Loss Prevention

• Environmental

• Packaged Equipment

The guidewords and parameters used in a HAZOP depend on the study, and can also vary by operating company. Additional guidewords and parameters may be added to the PHA, if appropriate for the process being studied.

In this course, you will also learn how to use the failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) method and you will learn how to use checklists of hazards to supplement your brainstorming analyses. You will learn the best situations and circumstances to use each technique. You will lead and participate in several analyses to familiarize you with each technique.

One complete course-day focuses on human factors issues and how to analyze for human errors that can occur in step-by-step procedures; this is the most important part of any risk review. You will learn the original form of the HAZOP and what-if/checklist techniques so you can effectively analyze procedures (startup, shutdown, normal batch operation, emergency operation, etc.) for the hazards of not performing a step as specified.

Who should take the course

• Process engineer or project engineer

• Operations supervisor

• PSM coordinator

• E, H, & S Managers & Engineers

Course Duration Five Days

What You Will Learn

• How to perform a PHA to meet PSM requirements for initial PHAs and management of change analyses including these critical elements:

• Preparing for the PHA

• Scoping the PHA

• Collecting information

• Selecting the team

• Leading a meeting

• Documenting results

• How to analyze operating procedures for critical accident scenarios

• How and when to apply HAZOP, FMEA, and/or what-if/checklist analyses methods to any process system in any industry such as chemical, petroleum, pulp and paper, explosives, mining, iron and steel, pharmaceuticals, and consumer products

• Experience via realistic workshops

Course Outline

Module (1)

• Introduction

– Learning objectives

– Overview of process safety management

– Risk assessment concepts

– Overview of PHA requirements

• Overview of risk review methods

– Methods and their usefulness over the life cycle of a process

– Making risk judgments

– Human factors concepts and how to address human factors during hazard


• Preparing for the hazard evaluation (risk review or PHA)

– Scoping the analysis

– Choosing technique and level of detail and sections

– Choosing the team members

– Logistics and procedures for pre-meeting, meeting, and post-meeting tasks

• What-if/checklist technique

– Workshop: Example What-if (instructor-led)

– Workshop: What-if/checklist review of a continuous process

Module (2)

• HAZOP technique

– Workshop: Example HAZOP (instructor-led)

– Workshop: HAZOP review of a continuous process

• Analysis documentation, results, and follow-up

– Workshop: HAZOP review of a continuous process (continued)

Module (3)

– Workshop: HAZOP review of a continuous process

• HAZOP/what-if techniques for analyzing procedures and batch processes

– Workshop: Example HAZOP of a procedure (instructor-led)

– Workshop: HAZOP/what-if reviews of batch processes and


Module (4)

• Workshop: HAZOP/what-if reviews of batch processes and procedures

• Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA)

– Workshop: FMEA of a critical auxiliary system

• Checklist analysis as supplements to brainstorming methods

– Workshop: Using Checklists after brainstorming methods

• Workshop: Estimating the schedule and labor required to perform a PHA

Module (5)

• Hazard Evaluation Software – functions and features

• Workshop: Using software to prepare for and document hazard evaluations/risk reviews

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